Minggu, 08 Juli 2012

Narrative Text dan Penjelasan

Narrative Text - Penjelasan & Contoh- contoh

Narrative text, dalam mata kuliah writing and composition biasanya disebut narration, adalah salah satu jenis teks dalam sebuah bahasa. Biasanya, narrative text (teks naratif) berisi tentang cerita--baik cerita fiksi, cerita non-fiksi, dongeng, cerita rakyat, cerita binatang / fabel dll, pokoknya semua hal tentang cerita ya narrative namanya... 

Mudah bukan?

Sekarang sedikit serius, karena akan menjurus pada penjelasan, oke...


Pengertian Narrative Text

Disebutkan bahwa A narrative text is an imaginative story to entertain people (teks narasi adalah cerita imaginatif yang bertujuan menghibur orang). 

Jika melihat pada kamus bahasa Inggris, secara harfiah narrative bermakna (1) a spoken or written account of connected events; a story. (2) the narrated part of a literary work, as distinct from dialogue. (3) the practice or art of narration. 

(Narrative bermakna : 1. sebuah cerita baik terucap atau tertulis tentang peristiwa-peristiwa yang berhubungan. 2. bagian yang diceritakan dalam sebuah karya sastra, berbeda dengan dialog. 3. Praktik atau seni bercerita) 

Jika disimpulkan, maka sebuah narrative text adalah teks yang berisi sebuah cerita baik tertulis ataupun tidak tertulis dan terdapat rangkaian peristiwa yang saling terhubung.

Generic Structure dari Narrative Text
Bagi sobat yang masih duduk di bangku sekolah tingkat menengah, penjelasan mengenai narrative texts tak usah sulit-sulit ya.. Intinya, narrative text ini mempunyai struktur / susunan seperti di bawah ini : 

·         Orientation : It is about the opening paragraph where the characters of the story are introduced. (berisi pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita (siapa atau apa, kapan dan dimana) 

·         Complication : Where the problems in the story developed. (Permasalahan muncul / mulai terjadi dan berkembang)

·         Resolution : Where the problems in the story is solved. Masalah selesai, --- secara baik "happy ending" ataupun buruk "bad ending".

Kadangkala susunan (generic structure) narrative text bisa berisi: Orientation, Complication, Evaluation, Resolution dan Reorientation. Meski “Evaluation” dan “Reorientation” merupakan optional; bisa ditambahkan dan bisa tidak. Evaluation berisi penilaian/evaluasi terhadap jalannya cerita atau konflik. Sedangkan Reorientation berisi penyimpulan isi akhir cerita.

Jika sudah mahir membuat cerita narrative, susunannya bisa diubah-ubah kok, yang terpenting bagian-bagian di atas masih tetap ada dalam tulisan narrative sobat. 

Grammar Used dalam Narrative Text
Grammar (tata bahasa) yang sering muncul dalam membuat narrative text adalah:

Menggunakan tenses "Past", baik simple, past perfect, past continuous, past perfect continuous, atau bisa saja past future continuous. (aturan ini bukan aturan wajib yang mutlak harus dipenuhi kok. Tidak percaya, tanyakan pada guru bahasa Inggris sobat)

Rumus Past Tense:
Positif: S + V2
Negatif: S + did not + V1
Tanya: Did + S + V1

Inti dari Past Tense adalah untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang telah “Lampau”. Lampau disini tak harus sudah lama-lama amat juga, pokoknya sudah berlalu, sudah lewat. Itulah penekanannya. Mungkin kemarin, satu jam lalu, 2 tahun lalu, 2 abad yang lalu, dan sebagainya. Semua itu sudah “Past”

Anda resepkan dulu bahwa kata kerja bantu “DO” bentuk present DO, bentuk keduanya (Bentuk Past) adalah DID. Kalau Present kan: I do not… maka Past nya: I did not….

Contoh Kalimat Past Tense:
-I launched this blog on july 14th 2009
Artinya:
Saya meluncurkan atau launching blog ini tanggal 14 juli 2009.
Sudah lewat kan?
Kalimat positif tadi, kita jadikan negatif:
-I saw her standing there
Menjadi: I did not see her standing there
Lihatlah saw jadi see lagi. See-saw-seen kan bentuk kata kerjanya?
Positif: My Father bought this car last year
Negatif: My Father did not BUY this car last year
Positif: My Father bought this car last year
Tanya: Did My Father BUY this car last year
Rumus Past Continuous Tense
Positif: S + was/were + Ving
Negatif: S + was/were + NOT + Ving
Tanya: Was/Were + S + Ving
Contohnya:
I was sleeping when my friend came to my house yesterday
Lihat tuh, “I was sleeping” adalah bagian Past Continuous Tensenya. Sedang tidurnya itu kemarin, saat teman saya datang ke rumah.
Jadi, Past Continuous Tense ini mirip banget rumusnya dengan Present Continuous Tense, bedanya di TOBE nya yang menjadi bentuk kedua.
Ingat-ingat perubahan dan pasangan TO BE nya ya.
Tobe: is, am berubah menjadi WAS
Tobe: are berubah menajdi WERE
I, She, He, It, John, Merry pasangannya adalah WAS
We, They, John and Merry pasangannya adalah WERE.
Contoh kalimat lainnya:
-They were learning in the classroom when I came
Mereka lagi belajar di kelas ketika saya datang.
negatifnya, tinggal pake rumusnya, tambahkan NOT setelah Tobe (was/were). Ingat rumusnya kan? Yes, Anda benar, rumusnya: S + was/were + NOT + Ving. Misalnya dari contoh sederhana yang terakhir diatas, menjadi:
- I was NOT writing …
- Joko was NOT sleeping …
- … ayo Anda buat yang lain.

Kalimat Tanya Past Continuous Tense

 Untuk bikin kalimat tanya tinggal TOBE nya (was atau were) di depan. Berikut ini dari contoh diatas akan menjadi:

- Was I writing ….?
Biasanya sih kalo bertanya kan gak nanya sendiri, karena itu lebih sering contoh-contoh yang ada dibuku pake YOU, sehingga menjadi:
Tambahan:
Yes, kalimat Past Continuous Tense sering
digandeng dengan Past Tense, tentu saja maksudnya untuk mengatakan bahwa kejadiannya tersebut SEDANG terjadi tetapi di masa LAMPAU (lewat) ketika sesuatu yang lain terjadi. Bagimana jika ingin menyatakan LAMPAU nya saja tetapi tidak menekankan pada SEDANG TERJADInya itu? Yes, gunakan saja Past Tense.
Rumus Past Perfect Tense
Positif: S + had + V3
Negatif: S + had + not + V3
Tanya: Had + S + V3

 

 

Past Perfect Tense sering digunakan dengan menggunakan kalimat lain yang berbentuk lampau (Past Tense) yang dihubungan dengan kata sambung seperti When (ketika), After (setelah) untuk menekankan bahwa Perfectnya (Sudahnya) itu adalah di masa lampau.

Contoh kejadiannya seperti ini:
“Kemarin Dia berangkat ke rumahku pagi-pagi bener, tetapi waktu ia sampai eh saya SUDAH pergi”. Tuh, lihatlah SUDAH perginya itu kan Perfect. Anda ingat pelajaran tentang Present Perfect Tense bahwa SUDAH itu adalah ciri-cirinya. Hanya saja SUDAH nya itu adalah kemarin (lampau). Itulah mengapa dalam kejadian ini kita menggunakan Past Perfect Tense.
Contoh kalimatnya:
-I had gone When He arrived at my home

Dalam Kalimat Negatif  tinggal tambah NO setelah HAD. Contoh berikut telah disederhanakan:
-I had not studied hard, so I didn’t make good result
-You had not told me that, that’s why I didn’t understand

Dalam Kalimat Tanya Tinggal dibalik, Had nya di depan.
Rumusnya kan: Had + S + V3

-Had You studied hard bla bla bla?
-Had You told me …?
-Silahkan buat sendiri contoh Anda.

 

Rumus Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Positif: S + had + been + Ving
Negatif: S + had + not + been + Ving
Tanya:  Had + S + been + Ving

Berdasarkan Contoh peristiwa diatas maka kalimatnya begini:
-I had been repairing freezer when my friend came to my house

Contoh lain:
-They had been playing football.
-She had been singing
-Joh and Merry had been loving each other.
Bentuk Negatif:
-They had not been playing football.
-She had not been singing
-Joh and Merry had not been loving each other.
Kalimat Tanya:
-Had They been playing football?.
-Had She been singing?
-Had Joh and Merry been loving each other?.
Tips untuk memperkuat pengertian Anda tentang Tenses:
Setiap tenses yang mengandung “Past” pasti pakai kata kerja atau kata kerja bantu bentuk ke-2. Dalam Past Perfect Continuous Tense ini kata kerja bentuk ke-2 atau V2 nya adalah HAD. Bentuk pertamanya adalah Have/has. Urutannya: Have-had-had.
Setiap tenses yang yang mengandung kata “Perfect” pasti pake kata kerja atau kata kerja bentuk ke-3. Dimana kata kerja ketiganya di Past Perfect Continuous Tense ini? Ia terletak pada “Been” nya itu. Been adalah bentuk ke-3 atau V3 dari be (tobe). Urutannya: tobe (am, is are) – (was, were) – been.
Setiap tenses yang mengandung kata “Continuous” pasti menggunakan kata kerja bentung ING atau saya singkat Ving. Present Continuous Tense, Present Perfect Continuous Tense, Past Continuous Tense, Past Perfect Continuous Tense dan sebagainya pasti pakai Ving.
Rumus Past Future Tense
Positif: S + would + V1
Negatif: S + would + not + V1
Tanya:  Would + S + V1
Will jadi Would.
Sering sih orang menggunakan “Should”. Untuk memudahkan pemahaman saja maka saya hanya menggunakan Would saja dalam serial pelajaran tenses Past Future Tense ini.
Contoh Kalimat Positif Past Future Tense
-I would go at 7 am when He came to my house yesterday
Contoh berikut dipermudah hanya kalimat intinya saja:
-You would work …
-They would drive home …
-She would learn music …

Kalimat Negatif Past Future tinggal tambahkan NOT setelah Would:
-You would not work …
-They would not drive home …
-She would not learn music …

Kalimat Tanya Past Future. tinggal Would nya di depan:
-Would You work …?
-Would They drive home …?
-Would She learn music …?

 


Untuk lebih jelasnya, lihat contohnya di bawah ini :

Generik Struktur dan contoh Narrative Text (1)


Snow white and Seven dwarf

 Orientation (pengenalan tokoh utama)
  • Once upon the time the live a little girl named snow White.
Complication; Development of the crises (Permasalahan yg timbul)
  • One day she heard her uncle and aunt talking About leaving Snow White in the castle because They both wanted to go to American and they Didn’t have enough money to take Snow White.
Resolution of the crises (penyelesaian masalah)
  • Snow White did not want her uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away into the woods
Complication; Development of the crises (Permasalahan yg timbul)
  • Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep
Resolution of the crises (penyelesaian masalah)

Mean while, she seven dwarfs were coming home from work They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up She saw the dwarfs said, “What is your name? Snow White said, “My name is Snow White” And, one of the dwarfs, said, “If you wish, You my live here with us. Snow White said, “Oh could I? Thank you.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the hole story and snow white and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.

Contoh Narrative Text (2)

 

The Legend of Rawa Pening

 

Once upon a time, there was a little poor boy came into a little village. He was very hungry and weak. He knocked at every door and asked for some food, but nobody cared about him. Nobody wanted to help the little boy.

 

Finally, a generous woman helped him. She gave him shelter and a meal. When the boy wanted to leave, this old woman gave him a “lesung”, a big wooden mortar for pounding rice. She reminded him, “please remember, if there is a flood you must save yourself. Use this “lesung” as a boat”. The “lesung” was happy and thanked the old woman.The little boy continued his journey. While he was passing through the village, he saw many people gathering on the field. The boy came closer and saw a stick stuck in the ground. People challenged each other to pull out that stick. Everybody tried, but nobody succeeded. “Can I try?” asked the little boy. The crowd laughed mockingly. The boy wanted to try his luck so he stepped forward and pulled out the stick. He could do it very easily. Everybody was dumbfounded.

 

Suddenly, from the hole left by stick, water spouted out. It did not stop until it flooded the village. And no one was saved from the water except the little boy and the generous old woman who gave him shelter and meal. As she told him, he used the “lesung” as a boat and picked up the old woman. The whole village became a huge lake. It is now known as Rawa Pening Lake in Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia.

 

 

Penjelasan Narrative Text (untuk tingkat Mahir)

  

Untuk mengetahui definisi dan penjelasan tentang narration (narrative text) sobat mahasiswa dan mahasiswi bisa membaca buku buku tentang writing di perpustakaan terdekat dan terlengkap, dan disini saya hanya akan mengutipkan pendapat Thomas S. Kane (2000: 363-364) di bawah ini:

 

A narrative is a meaningful sequence of events told in words. It is sequential in that the events are ordered, not merely random. Sequence always involves an arrangement in time (and usually other arrangements as well). A straightforward movement from the first event to the last constitutes the simplest chronology. However, chronology is sometimes complicated by presenting the events in another order: for example, a story may open with the final episode and then flash back to all that preceded it.


A narrative has meaning in that it conveys an evaluation of some kind. The writer reacts to the story he or she tells, and states or implies that reaction. This is the "meaning," sometimes called the "theme," of a story. Meaning must always be rendered. The writer has to do more than tell us the truth he sees in the story; he must manifest that truth in the characters and the action.


Characters and action are the essential elements of any story. Also important, but not as essential, is the setting, the place where the action occurs. Characters are usually people—sometimes actual people, as in history books or newspaper stories, sometimes imaginary ones, as in novels. Occasionally characters are animals (as in an Aesop fable), and sometimes a dominant feature of the environment functions almost like a character (the sea, an old house).


The action is what the characters say and do and anything that happens to them, even if it arises from a nonhuman source—a storm, for instance, or a fire. Action is often presented in the form of a plot. Action is, so to speak, the raw material; plot, the finished product, the fitting together of the bits and pieces of action into a coherent pattern. Usually, though not invariably, plot takes the form of a cause-and effect chain: event A produces event B; B leads to C; C to D; and so on until the final episode, X. In a well-constructed plot of this kind we can work back from X to A and see the connections that made the end of the story likely and perhaps inevitable.


Stories can be very long and complicated, with many characters, elaborate plots, and subtle interpenetration of character, action, and setting. In writing that is primarily expository, however, narratives are shorter and simpler. Most often they are factual rather than imaginary, as when an historian describes an event. And often in exposition an illustration may involve a simple narrative. Being able to tell a story, then, while not the primary concern of the expository writer, is a skill which he or she will now and again be called upon to use.

 

Referensi :

 

Kane, Thomas. S. 2000.The Oxford Essential Guide to Writing. New York: Barkley Books.

 

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